Both AA and FA have the potential for use as bio-herbicides. Proceedings 27th Annual Meeting Southern Weed Science Society., 125. The world's worst weeds. The virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation and not by grafting or contact between plants or by seeds. in the USA [63, 64]. Generally crops are affected most severely during the first 2 – 5 weeds of crop growth although mature plants can also be affected . Such combinations should provide significant management levels of Commelina species for both conventional as well as organic growers using a pesticide free production PFP approach.  Die Gattung Commelina gehört zur Tribus Commelineae in der Unterfamilie der Commelinoideae innerhalb der Familie der Commelinaceae. Budd GD; Thomas PEL; Allison JCS, 1979. and Cleome aculeate L. Banana mulch treatment provided the best control by significantly reducing weed biomass and weed species composition and was followed by Fomesafen, coffee hulls, clear plastic mulch and Desmodium heterocarpon. There are three free petals. Drummond RB, 1984. The plant produces roots readily at the nodes of the creeping stems and will do so especially when broken or cut [27, 28]. In the dry season, heaps are then scattered as the dry conditions desiccate Commelina stems rapidly. Because Commelina species is a broadleaved weed it is generally not considered highly competitive for nutrients however this fact is not well researched and its allelopathic potential also needs to be ascertained. Mulching is another viable option for management of the weed. Glufosinate has since been promoted as an environmentally-friendly option for the control of broad-leaved weeds including Commelina species. non L. (and C. communis) have occasionally been used as synonyms of Commelina diffusa Burm. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. and Cleome aculeate L. Banana mulch treatment provided the best control by significantly reducing weed biomass and weed species composition and was followed by Fomesafen, coffee hulls, clear plastic mulch and Desmodium heterocarpon. Commelina benghalensis is the most important of the three and it occurs as a weed in 25 different crops in 28 countries . These include preemergence herbicides with residual activity such as Axiom® (flufenacet + metribuzin), Dual Magnum® Canopy SP® (metribuzin + chlorimuron) and Sencor® (metribuzin) and postemergence herbicides with fair to good activity such as Basagran®, Classic® (acetochlor) and Pursuit® (Imazethapyr). Commelina caespitosa Roxb.. Commelina cajennensis Kunth. Black plastic mulch also provides good weed control as it stifles weed seed growth and development when light penetration is reduced. Post-emergent sequential treatments of propanil followed by nitrogen or of molinate followed by KN3 controlled C. diffusa in rice . In: Resumenes de Trabajos, 1a Reunion de Trabajo de la Asociacion Latinoamericana de Especialistas en las Ciencias Aplicadas a las Malezas (ALARM). These mycobiota would appear to be good potential agents for classical biological control (CBC) . This species which was first observed in USA in 1928  gained noxious weed status in 1983 . Licensee IntechOpen. f. Tripa de pollo . However, no single method of control seems to be effective for control of Commelina spp. Ivens GW, 1967. Utilization of the useful benefits of Commelina species after uprooting will also serve to check the heavy use of herbicides in cropping systems. Secondly, the move within recent years by banana growers to adopt a Fairtrade system which uses no herbicides has catapulted the spread to an all-time high in the Windward Islands. There are 19 and 14 herbicides which provided good to excellent control (> 80%) to C. benghalensis and C. communis under greenhouse conditions, respectively. It readily roots at the nodes when they come into contact with the soil. Dhingra OD; Silva JFda, 1978. Malaysia: 11 pp. Weed control in the forest nursery with CFNP (MO-500). Results indicate a 94.5% and 95.6% suppression of weeds including C. diffusa with coffee hulls and banana mulch treatments respectively and 100% suppression with black plastic mulch. In field studies in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in 2003/2004 three dead mulches were compared using senescent banana leaves (traditional practice of farmers) applied to a depth of 3-5 cm, coffee hulls applied to a depth of 3-5 cm and black plastic polyethylene tarp at 1.0 mils thickness . 13:22-25, Nakayama K, 1977. Animals may also spread the seeds. Nombres . Glufosinate (240 g a.i./ha) and fomasefen (WIP 276 g a.i./ha) were used in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in Fairtrade banana fields to compare their efficacy in controlling C. diffusa . Commelinaceae. It is transmitted in a non – persistent manner. Commelina diffusa was once encouraged as a ground cover to reduce soil erosion  and has been identified as the host of the reniformis nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis , the banana lesion nematode Pratylenchus goodeyi  and recent data have confirmed its association with the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis . Evaluation of several herbicide mixuters at different times in paddy rice in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp. It was also observed that Rhaphidopalpa africana beetles fed more than the others on the weed, C. benghalensis L. . It generally grows in moist and/or shady habitats. Melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) planted at a density of 5,000 plants/ha suppressed weed growth of Commelina diffusa for five months, enhancing establishment and yield of melon in Nigeria . Weed control in Arabica coffee in the central highlands of New Guinea. In Uganda, it was reported that heaping of stubborn weeds of Commelina plants is practical during the rainy season to speed up rotting and reduce the frequency of weeding . Members of this family (Commelindeae: Commelinaceae) are common throughout the Caribbean, North and Latin America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and parts of Oceania [18, 27, 28, 63, 64]. How? Noltie HJ, 1994. Many of these studies should be consulted for basic details of the biology and ecology. 22-50. The best way to control Commelina species for small holders in developing countries would be by implementing an integrated approach that embraces a variety of options which should be attuned to the individual farmer’s agronomic and socio – economic conditions (soil type, climate, costs, local practices and preferences). An Integrated Management Strategy (IWM) is therefore suggested for the best control of this weed species. Original citation: Terry and Micheika, 1987, Original citation: Castillo et al. Plant Disease Reporter, 49(7):583-585. In rice, bentazone, molinate, oxyfluorfen and bifenox are herbicides with good activity . Research aimed at evaluating the periods of interference of C. benghalensis in the initial growth of coffee seedlings reported prevention periods of 15 to 88 and 22 to 38 days after coffee seedling sowing under winter and summer conditions, respectively . 1), 22-96. The leaves are ovate to narrow-ovate, and measure 2–7 cm (1–3 in) long by 0.5–1.5 cm (0.20–0.59 in) wide. Commelina diffusa . The mature aerial seeds of C. benghalensis are produced within 14 to 22 days after flower opening  and in some instances, e.g., the rice paddies of the Philippines, can produce in excess of 1,600 seeds/plant  or even 12,000 seeds/m2 , whereas seeds grown from underground seeds are capable of producing 8,000 seeds/m2 . / ha, however, paracol and gardoprim suppressed this perennial weed better . Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. Commelina diffusa Burm. Commelina formosa Graham. There are prospects for the management of invasive alien weeds in Latin America using co-evolved fungal pathogens in selected species from the genera Commelina . Feeding and nymphal development (up to 3rd and 4th instar) of Cornop aquaticaum (grasshopper) were reported on C. africana L., and Murdannia africana (Vahl.) The results indicated that, as for C. benghalensis, mesotrione, lactofen, oxyfluorfen, clomazone and flumioxazin provide complete control (100%), oxadiazon, fomesafen, metribuzin, acifluorfen, isoproturon, MCPA-sodium, carfentrazone-ethyl, fluroxypyr, fluoroglycofen-ethyl and bentazone are herbicides with excellent activity (90.0 - 100% control), paraquat, 2,4-D butylate, rimsulfuron and thifensulfuron-methyl are herbicides with good activity (80.0 - 90.0% control), and nicosulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, dicamba and glyphosate-isopropylammonium are relatively ineffective (< 80.0% control) at their own recommended dose, respectively. 1998. Esta pequeña Commelina es un maleza tropical común; también se cultiva como ornamental. Tropical Spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis): A Tropical Invader Threatens Agroecosystems of the Southern United States - Volume 19 Issue 3 - Theodore M. Webster, Michael G. Burton, A. Stanley Culpepper, Alan C. York, Eric P. Prostko Edinburgh, Scotland: Royal Botanic Gardens. Spreading dayflower (Commelina diffusa) is a succulent annual that produces freely branched smooth stems. Presently, Commelina species, commonly called watergrass, caner grass, pond grass, spiderwort, spreading dayflower, wandering Jew or French weed in these Islands, are by far the most serious in these countries. The virus is transmitted by two insect vectors, Aphis gossypi and Myzus persicae; Aphididae. After removing the plastic any regrowth can be dug out or sprayed, however, this method will not be effective in full shade. Der Gattungsname Commelina wurde 1753 durch Carl von Linné in Sp… Weed management strategies that are narrowly focused will ultimately cause shifts in weed populations to species that no longer respond to the strategy resulting in adapted species, tolerant species or herbicide-resistant biotypes , which is the case with Commelina species in cropping systems. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Commelina species has gained noxious weed status in the Windward Islands because of several factors. Moroco Weed 3., Basel, Switzerland: Ciba Geigy Ltd. Drummond RB, 1984. The most effective herbicide control strategies for C. benghalensis involve combinations of both pre-emergence and postemergence conventional herbicides . Pritchard GH, 1971. Greenhouse tests determined an optimal temperature for conidial germination of 25 °C –30 °C, and that sporulation occurred on several solid growth media. Vegetation regeneration, depth of germination and seed dormancy in Commelina benghalensis L. Rhodesia Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):151-154. the rusts Phakopsora tecta and Uromyces commelinae) are already present in the New World, they are restricted to certain regions and could be redistributed . The present investigation was undertaken which deals with the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity of … However, at the onset of rains and when the canopy of the banana closes, stems regain moisture, re-establish and rapidly begin to spread by runners which root at the nodes. The integrated approach should utilize alternative strategies such as those mentioned in this paper including the most practical options, cultural and mechanical not negating the judicious use of herbicides. It can be bagged and well baked in the sun, however, follow – up work is essential as any small … (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Smith RJ Jr, 1974. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. This fact is evident in young banana plantations in the Windward Islands where stems become dried and shrivelled due to the direct contact with solar radiation particularly in the dry season. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Commelina diffusa thrives on cultivated soils of cocoa (Theobroma cacao), citrus, root crops such as dasheen (Colocasia esculenta) that tolerate water, and it is also a major weed in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), upland rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), cassava (Manihot esculenta), corn (Zea mays), banana and plantain (Musa spp.) As reviewed by Wilson (1981), many standard herbicides have relatively low activity on species of Commelina: these include 2,4-D, propanil, butachlor, trifluralin and pendimethalin. Treatments significantly shifted the species composition away from Commelina diffusa to annual weed species such as Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. The plant is used in fever, malaria, insect, bug bites, rheumatoid arthritis, gonorrhea, influenza, and bladder infection etc. Commelina diffusa occurs as a weed in 17 crops in 26 countries and Murdannia nudiflora occurs as a weed in 16 crops in 23 countries . We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Five viruses have been found naturally infecting species of Commelinaceae. 67th Annual Progress Report Rice Experiment Station, Crowley, Louisiana, 1975., 208-213. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Brome mosaic virus isolates have been identified  infecting C. diffusa and C. communis in Fayetteveille, Arkansas, USA. Mechanical control using the weed whacker may also contribute the spread of stem cuttings in addition to damaging the banana root system as much of the plant lies within the top 15 cm of the soil . Commelina species, namely C. diffusa and elegans, were reported as the 3rd most troublesome weed in the Caribbean where they are a serious problem of banana and other crops in the Windward Islands of Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines . Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. Baker JB, 1977. However, C. diffusa has been reported to have larger possibilities of recovery after glyphosate application because of its larger starch reservation . Raabe R, 1965. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. Weed control in upland farming of Japan. Herbicide combinations for weed control. Additionally, the adoption within recent years of GM crops particularly herbicide – resistant crops presents serious issues involving their negative ecological impact as already there are reports of Commelina species prominence in some agroecosystems due to simple and significant selection pressure brought to bear by these herbicide – resistant crops and the concomitant use of the herbicide . DTE corn weed blocker (corn gluten meal) pre-emergent weed blocker and slow release fertilizer (9-1-0) which controls emerging weeds was applied at a rate of 10 kg/ha. ), Second Edition (Ed. Firstly, the fact that the weed was encouraged as a groundcover was compounded by inappropriate agricultural practices, notably irrational herbicide use which farmers have relied on for decades. Alvarado MJ, 1971. A geographical atlas of world weeds. Paviot J, 1977. and C. benghalensis L. as well as their biotypes, are perennial herbs of Neotropical origin which now have a pantropical distribution. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. The non-judicious use of herbicides has created imbalances and disturbances within the ecosystem in these Islands causing resistant biotypes. The southern root-knot nematode is widely distributed across cotton regions in Georgia . Mulching with rice straw, cut bush, grass, coffee hulls, water hyacinth or even the dead or senescent banana leaves, pruned suckers and old stems could significantly suppress weed growth. Commelina cyanea is a trailing herbaceous perennial plant, whose stems grow along the ground. The initial control of C. diffusa with glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl was improved when associated with the adjuvant, mainly for AI11002 and TT11002 nozzles.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a qualidade da tecnologia de aplicação da mistura em tanque de glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de Commelina diffusa. v + 141 pp. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Pubescence on the stem is variable and ranges from glabrous to hispidulous, which can occur either in a line or throughout. Treatment with 2,4-D or MCPA at the pre-emergent stage has been shown to be ineffective and although a reasonable kill of very young seedlings can be obtained, the plants develop a rapid resistance with age . Commelina diffusa is a plant rich in antioxidant compounds, used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. London, UK: Crown Agents. Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. There are records of agromyzid leaf miners which may be promising sources of candidate biological control agents . It generally … Results from systematic studies on the influence of C. benghalensis populations on crop yield are limited . New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. Wendy-Ann Isaac, Zongjun Gao and Mei Li (June 12th 2013). National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. climbing dayflower. A multi-component approach including an effective herbicide for successful management has been suggested [80-82]. Inflorescens peduncles 7 – 25 mm long. Commelina nudiflora auct. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Commelina diffusa Burm. Hairy Commelina hails from Africa and Asia and is a notable environmental weed smothering the ground layer in waterways, disturbed bushlands and crops in Australia. Successful management of C. benghalensis will require a multi-component approach including an effective herbicide that provides soil residual activity . They die off in winter. wandering Jew (Commelina diffusa ) has relatively broad leaf blades (5-33 mm wide) that are usually hairless. In Georgia alone the weed is estimated to infest more than 80,000 ha [80-82] with a confirmed presence in 29 Georgia counties . (1971b). Check our website at biosecurity.qld.gov.au to ensure you have the latest version of this fact sheet. Impacto e importancia 7. Waterhouse DF, 1993. Commelina benghalensis in particular has been the most reported species with several reports of research conducted on its control in southern states of the United States of America (USA) including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and North Carolina [18, 74, 75, 78-81]. f., but these names have been used by different authors for more than one taxon and are incorrect when applied to C. diffusa. There are 500 - 600 species reported in the family Commelinaceae . Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Hepper), pp. Noltie HJ, 1994. Commelina benghalensis has also been identified as an alternate host of the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) . Rice Journal, 77(7):31-32, Stamps RH, 1993. This study … A new herbicide trial in a cacao plantation at the Station de Nkoemvone. The plant is easy to rake up, roll up or hand pull and very small infestations can be dug out. Benghal dayflo… 278 pp. ACIAR Monograph No. It easily roots at the nodes and reproduces vegetatively and by seeds. Most importantly these Islands which are characterized by hilly landscapes have ideal moist conditions for the proliferation of Commelina species. Commelina diffusa is the main food plant of L. commelinae, however, it is susceptible to predation by the formicid: Crematogaster brevispinosa as well as competition and exposure to the sun (high temperatures) which causes high mortality . (Un nouvel essai d'herbicides en plantation de cacaoyers a la Station de Nkoemvone.). Rice weed control studies (a preliminary report). Spreading dayflower (Commelina diffusa Burm. The isolate for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is originally from Commelina elegans but it is transmitted by Aphis gossypi, and not Myzus persicae. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. In an interview on August 10, 2002, Paddy Thomas, an experienced banana grower and pesticide salesman in St. Vincent and the Grenadines revealed that farmers started using gramocil (paraquat + diuron) at high doses for example and this too was not effective and resistance in Commelina spp. This was followed by urea (41%), fertilizer solution (34%) and corn weed blocker (20%). . Brenan JPM, 1968. . Control 8. Effect of ten years' application with bromacil in citrus (Satsuma mandarin) orchard. 82-96. Control using herbicides is, however, variable depending on the herbicide, accuracy of leaf coverage and environmental conditions . C. Commelina diffusa; Media in category "Commelina diffusa" The following 42 files are in this category, out of 42 total. Introducción. The spread of C. benghalensis is attributed, in part, to the adoption of weed management programmes that lack the use of residual herbicides along with the adoption of reduced-tillage production practices . Soybean herbicide experiments (a preliminary report). Rice weed control studies (a preliminary report). There have not been many reports on biological control of Commelina species. Commelina diffusa is a colonising species of banana orchard habitats in St. Vincent in the Windward Islands of the Caribbean. by F.N. Snails and slugs feed on C. diffusa plants and these affect crops such as pineapple and soybean . Reproduction occurs via seed and stem fragments. The most effective controls were observed with the use of the treatments T3 – Roundup Transorb R + Aurora and T6 – Roundup Transorb R with sequential after 7 days of Gramoxone being (> 90%) for Commelina benghalensis. Some farmers in St. Vincent have also tried this technique in the field with varying success. However, Commelina elegans is insusceptible to Tradescantia – Zebrina potyvirus. Effect of weed control on the internally seed borne fungi in soybean seeds. Weed control in maize in the Torluca Valley, Mexico. As for C. communis, mesotrione and thifensulfuron-methyl provide complete control (100%); metribuzin, paraquat, carfentrazone-ethyl, 2,4-D butylate, nicosulfuron, MCPA-sodium, fluroxypyr, flumioxazin and acifluorfen are herbicides with excellent activity (90.0 - 100% control); rimsulfuron, lactofen and fomesafen are herbicides with good activity (80.0 - 90.0% control); and glyphosate-isopropylammonium, bensulfuron-methyl, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, bentazone, clomazone, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, isoproturon and dicamba are relatively ineffective (< 80.0% control) at their own recommended dose, respectively. In soybean, bentazone and metribuzin are effective . Resumenes de tabajos, 1a Reunion de Trabajo de la Associacion Latinoamericana de Especialistas en las Ciencias Aplicads a las Malezes (ALARM). A guide to the recognition of more important arable weeds of crops. Weed control in arabica coffee in the central highlands of New Guinea. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The World's Worst Weeds. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. Because of Commelina’s vigorous growth habit, which allows the plant to form dense pure stands, they may compete easily with low growing crops such as vegetables, pulses and cereals as well as pasture grasses and legumes by smothering them . Ciba Geigy, 1982. Studies on the critical periods of interference in Commelina species are limited. and Radopholus similis in banana [13, 27, 29, 44, 55, 57, 60, 87] and coffee. Identificación y descripción 4. Extreme tolerance to glyphosate has been documented . Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. 21 (1), 41-46. Dinoseb has been found to kill seedlings as well as dalapon but paraquat is reported to be relatively ineffective . In the USA, its sudden emergence as a noxious weed is attributed to crop production practices which are well suited for prolific weed growth such as minimum – tillage production (which is undertaken in conjunction with the use of glyphosate – resistant crops) and extreme tolerance to glyphosate [79-81]. Sancho EC; Chavarria PL; Garcia JG, 1971. Finally, many of the banana plantations have been farmed for several years with virtually no crop rotations or tillage practices and this has further contributed to the stabilization of Commelina species populations. Basagran for dayflower control in rice. Particular biotypes are resistant to 2,4-D and they may be cross resistant to other Group O / 4 herbicides . , 2012. Volume 3, Part 1 (Ed. In plantation crops such as banana, paraquat is not always effective but mixture with diuron is recommended . Ensure that there is no emergence of the crop may also be post-directed. 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